1. Observing Systems
Lectures: Surface observations-ASOS and other networks. Alitimeter setting and sea level pressure. Upper air observations-radiosondes, profilers, ACARS. Calculation of geopotential heights. Radar and satellite observations. Lightning detection networks.
Labs: Geopotential and pressure reduction exercises. Introduction to online data and analysis resources. Map room.
2. Map Analysis and Basic Wind Relationships
Lectures: Scalar analysis. Station models and aviation, buoy, and ship reports. Geostrophic, gradient and ageostrophic wind relationships. Upper atmospheric analysis.
Labs: Station model and aviation report exercises; 500 mb and 850 mb analyses. Instruction on online analysis tools (ntrans, garp, department commands).
3. Atmospheric Structure
Lectures: Thickness, thermal wind, and jet streams.
Frontogenesis. Upper level fronts. Vorticity and potential
Labs: 300 and 200 mb analyses. Thermal wind lab. GARP analysis.
4. Conceptual Models of Cyclones and Fronts
Lectures: Norwegian conceptual model . Isobaric and frontal analysis.
Problems with traditional frontal analysis.
Labs: Surface analysis. Electronic labs. Cross sectional analyses.
6 Clouds and Precipitation and Their Relationship to Synoptic Systems.
Lectures: Frontal and boundary-layer clouds and their relationship
to synoptic structures. Mesoscale precipitation structures.
Labs: Introduction to weather forecasting
7. Introduction to Weather Radar
Lectures: Basic technology and interpretation.
NWS radar network.
Labs: Radar interpretation exercises.
8. Introduction to Weather Satellites and their Imagery
Lectures: Hardware description. Basic concepts. Enhancement
curves. Interpretation of visible, infrared, microwave, and moisture imagery.
Labs: Analysis of satellite imagery.
9. Modern Ideas on Synoptic Structure and Development.
Lecture: Shapiro and Keyser model, conveyor belt conceptual
models. Split fronts and cold fronts aloft. Three dimensional
airflow in cyclones. Numerical simulations of cyclone/frontal evolution.
Labs: GARP analysis of three-dimensional structures, trajectory analyses using model data.
10. Tropical Meteorology.
Lectures: Basic characteristics and comparison to midlatitudes.
Easterly waves and tropical storms.
Labs: Streamline and isotach analysis.