ATM S 370, Winter 2004
Atmospheric Structure and Analysis
Course Outline

1. Applications of the Hydrostatic Relationship to Synoptic Meteorology

Lectures:  Radiosonde observations.  Hypsometric Equation.  Geopotential height. Altimeter Setting.  Sea level pressure.
Labs: Geopotential and pressure reduction exercises.  Introduction to the map room.

2.  Map Analysis and Basic Wind Relationships

Lectures:  Scalar Analysis. Geostrophic, gradient and ageostrophic wind relationships. Upper atmospheric analysis.  Station models and aviation, buoy, and ship reports.
Labs: Station model and aviation report exercises; 500 mb and 850 mb analyses. Introduction to online analysis tools (ntrans, garp, department commands).

3.  Atmospheric Structures

Lectures:  Thickness, thermal wind, and jet streams.  Upper level fronts.  Vorticity.
Labs: 300 and 200 mb analyses. Thickness analysis. Thermal wind lab. GARP analysis.

4.  Conceptual Models of Cyclones and Fronts

Lectures: Norwegian conceptual model . Isobaric and frontal analysis. Problems with traditional frontal analysis.
Labs: Surface analysis.  GARP Exercise.

5.  Clouds and Precipitation and Their Relationship to Synoptic Systems.

Lectures:  Frontal and boundary-layer clouds and their relationship to synoptic structures. Mesoscale precipitation structures.  Introduction to radar meteorology.
Labs: Cross sectional analysis. Radar interpretation exercises.

6.  Weather Satellite Imagery

Lectures:  Hardware description. Basic concepts. Enhancement curves. Interpretation of visible, infrared, microwave, and moisture imagery.
Labs: Analysis of satellite imagery. Electronic satellite interpolation exercises. Weather Forecasting I.

7.  Modern Ideas on Synoptic Structure and Development.

Lecture:  Shapiro and Keyser model, conveyor belt conceptual models.  Split fronts and cold fronts aloft.  Three dimensional airflow in cyclones. Numerical simulations of cyclone/frontal evolution.
Labs: GARP analysis of three-dimensional structures and trajectory analyses using model data.

8. Tropical Meteorology.

Lectures: Basic characteristics and comparison to midlatitudes. Easterly waves and tropical storms.
Labs: Streamline and isotach analysis.  Weather Forecasting II.